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ქალების გამოგონებები, რომლებმაც მსოფლიო შეცვალეს

მანქანის კონდიციონერი

პირველი მანქანა, რომელსაც გამათბობელი ჰქონდა და ჰაერს ათბობდა, მე-19 საუკუნეში, 1893 წელს მარგარეტ ვილოქსმა გამოიგონა. ასევე, მის გამოგონებათა სიაშია ტანსაცმელი და ჭურჭლის კომბინირებული სარეცხი მანქანა.

თამაში მონოპოლი

ყველა დროის ერთ-ერთი ყველაზე პოპულარული დაფის თამაში, საოჯახო გართობისა და ამასთან ოჯახური სიმყუდროვის დამრღვევი მონოპოლი, ელიზაბეტ მეიჯიმ 1904 წელს გამოიგონა. თავშესაქცევს თავდაპირველად ,,მემამულეების თამაში’’ ერქვა. მეიჯეის თამაში კაპიტალიზმის უსამართლობის ერთგვარი კრიტიკა იყო. 30 წლის შემდეგ თამაში ჩარლ დეროუმ მიითვისა და ძმებ პარკერებს მიყიდა.

სახანძრო კიბე

ეს მოწყობილობა საზოგადოებრივი უსაფრთხოების და ურბანული მოწყობის მნიშვნელოვანია ნაწილია. სახანძრო კიბე 1887 წელს ანა კონელმა გამოიგონა.

სამაშველო ნავი

1882 წლის ერთ დღესაც მარია ბიზლმა ზღვას გახედა და თქვა: ,, ხალხის დიდ სატრანსპორტო კატასტროფებში სიკვდილი უნდა შეწყდეს’’ და სამაშველო ნავი გამოიგონა. ბიზლის გამოგონებათა სიას ეკუთვნის ასევე მანქანა, რომელსაც კასრის გაკეთება შეეძლო, რამაც გამომგონებელი წარმოუდგენლად გაამდიდრა.

სახლის მზის გამათბობელი

1947 წელს ფიზიკოსმა მარია ტელკსმა არქიტექტორ ელეონორა რეომონდთან ერთად ააშენა სახლი, რომელიც მთლიანად მზის ენერგიით თბებოდა.

სამედიცინო შპრიცი

1899 წელს ლეტიცია გირმა შექმნა სამედიცინო შპრიცი, რომლის ხმარებაც მხოლოდ ერთი ხელით იყო შესაძლებელი.

• თანამედროვე მაცივარი

თანამედროვე ელექტრო მაცივარი 1914 წელს ფლორენს ფარფეტმა გამოიგონა. ჯერ კიდევ 1900 წელს ფარფეტმა ქუჩის დასუფთავების მანქანის მოდელი გააუმჯობესა და დააპატენტა. იმ დროისთვის ამერიკის ქუჩებში უამრავ ასეთ მანქანას შეხვდებოდით.

• ნაყინის მანქანა

ნაყინის მოყვარულებმა მადლობა ნენსი ჯონსონს უნდა გადაუხადონ. 1843 წელს მან ნაყინის გამყინავი მოწყობილობა შექმნა, რომელიც ვიზუალით ნაყინის დამაზადებელ თანამედროვე ელექტრო მექანიზმს ძალიან წააგავს.

• კომპიუტერული ალგორითმი

პირველი კომპიუტერული პროგრამის ავტორი ადა ლოურენსია. გამომგონებელი ჩარლზ ბებიჯთან ერთად ლონდონის უნივერსიტეტში მუშაობდა ანალიტიკურ სისტემაზე, რომელიც თანამედროვე კომპიუტერული ალგორითმის წინა სახედ ითვლება.

• პირველი ფერადკანიანი ქალი ტელეკომუნიკაციების ტექნოლოგიაში

Bell-ის ლაბორატორიაში მუშაობის პერიოდში მისმა სამეცნიერი კვლევებმა გარღვევა მოახდინა ტელეკომუნიკაცის სფეროში, რამაც საფუძველი დაუდო ისეთ გამოგონებებს, როგორიცაა, სენსორული ტელეფონი, ბოჭკოვანი კაბელი და ფაქსის აპარატი.

• ჭურჭლის სარეცხი მანქანა

ჭურჭლის სარეცხი მანქანა 1887 წელს ჟოზეფინა კოქრენმა გამოიგონა. გამოგონება მან სასტუმროს მფლობელს მიყიდა. საქმიან შეხვედრებზე ის ქმრის, ძმის და მამის გარეშე დადიოდა, რაც იმ დროისთვის უჩვეულო იყო. გამომგონებელმა საბოლოოდ საკუთარი ქარხანა გახსნა.

• უსადენო გადამყვანი

მეორე მსოფლიო ომის დროს ჰედი ლამარსმა შექმნა საიდუმლო საკომუნიკაციო სისტემა, რომელიც რადიოს ტორპედოს აკონტროლებდა. გამოგონებამ საფუძველი ჩაუყარა Wi-Fi-ს და GPS-ს. ჰედი ლამარი მსოფლიოში აღიარებული კინო ვარსკვლავიც იყო.

• სათვალთვალო კამერა

მარია ვან ბრიტან ბრაუნმა სათვალთვალო კამერა 1969 წელს დააპატენტა. მოწყობილობა ხალხს უსაფრთხოების უზრუნველყოფაში ეხმარებოდა, რადგან ნიუ-იორკში მათ ზარებზე პოლიცია სწრაფად ვერ რეაგირებდა. სწორედ ამ გამოგონებას ეფუძნება თანამედროვე სისტემა, რომელიც ჩვენს სახლებს იცავს.

• ქაღალდის პარკი

1871 წელს მარგარეტ ნაითმა დააპატენტა მანქანა, რომელსაც შეეძლო ოთკუთხედი ძირის მქონე ჩანთის წარმოება. ჩარლ ენანი თვლიდა, რომ ქალი არ შეიძლებოდა მანქანის გამომგონებელი ყოფილიყო და დიდი ხნის დაპირისპირების შემდეგ გამოგონება მიითვისა. ეს კაცი ისტორიამ სამართლიანად დაივიწყა. რაც შეეხება ქალბატონ ნაითს, მან ჯერ კიდევ 12 წლის ასაკში გამოიგონა უსაფრთხოების თერმოსტატი ბამბის ქარხნისთვის, რომელიც დღემდე გამოიყენება.

• ცენტრალური გათბობა

ყოველ ჯერზე, როდესაც ზამთარში არ გიწევთ თქვენი სახლის გარშემო სირბილი, რომ გათბეთ, თითოეულ ოთახში ბუხარს არ ანთებთ და არ გცივათ, იფიქრეთ რომ ეს ალისა პარკერის დამსახურებაა. მან გაზზე მომუშავე გათბობის სისტემა 1919 წელს გამოიგონა. მიუხედავად იმისა, რომ პარკერის მიერ შექმნილი გათბობის დიზაინი ფართოდ არ დანერგილა, რეალურად მისმა გამოგონებამ თანამერდროვე გათბობის სისტემას ჩაუყარა საფუძველი.

• კევლარი

ქიმიკოსმა სტეფან კოილექმა ბოჭკოვანი მასალა კევლარი შექმნა. ამ მასალით ტყვიაგაუმტარი ჟილეტები იქმნება. კევლარი 5-ჯერ უფრო გამძლე ქსოვილია, ვიდრე ფოლადი, და 200-ზე მეტი დასახელების პროდუქტში გამოიყენება.

• კომპიუტერის პროგრამული უზრუნველყოფა

გრეის მური ჰოპერი ამერიკის საზღვაო ფლოტის ადმირალობასთან ერთად კომპიუტერის სპეციალისტიც იყო. მან გამოიგონა COBOL – პირველი ბიზნეს პროგრამა კომპიუტერული უზრუნველყოფით. მან ასევე პირველმა იხმარა ტერმინი ,,bug’’.

• ლუდი

ლუდი არც მეტი არც ნაკლები გოგოების სასმელია! როგორც ლუდის ისტორიკოსი ჯეინ პეიტონი აცხადებს, უძველესი მესოპოტამიელი, ვინც პირველმა აღმოაჩინა ლუდი, დალია და გაყიდა კიდეც ქალი იყო. შესაძლოა, ახლა ძნელია იმის დადგენა ვინ ,,გამოიგონა’’ ლუდი, მაგრამ დღეს ის ბევს უყვარს. როდესაც შემდეგ ჯერზე ლუდით სავსე ჭიქას აიღებ, გახსოვდეს შუმერული ქალღმერთ ნინკას აგმოვნებ.

 

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