მართლწერა

რომელია სწორი – ჰკითხა თუ კითხა? შეჰმატა თუ შემატა? სძულს თუ ძულს? გამოსცა თუ გამოცა?

– და – პირის ნიშნები მოსალოდნელია მხოლოდ იმ ზმნებში, რომელთაც მესამე პირის ირიბი ობიექტი შეეწყობათ.

იმისთვის, რომ განვსაზღვროთ, საჭიროა თუ არა ჰ- და ს- ნიშნების დართვა, ორ მნიშვნელოვან კითხვას უნდა გავცეთ პასუხი:

  • შეეწყობა თუ არა ზმნას ირიბი ობიექტი?
  • იწყება თუ არა ზმნის ფუძე იმ თანხმოვნით, რომელთა წინაც ნიშნის დასმა სავალდებულოა?

მივყვეთ თავიდან:

როგორ გავიგოთ, შეიწყობს თუ არა ზმნა ირიბ ობიექტს?

თავდაპირველად, გავერკვეთ, რომელია ირიბი ობიექტი?

ირიბია ობიექტი, რომელიც ბრუნვას არ იცვლის სხვადასხვა მწკრივში და მუდამ მიცემით ბრუნვაში დგას. ამის გამო ამ ობიექტს ბრუნვაუცვლელსაც უწოდებენ. ჩვენს შემთხვევაში „დასახმარებლად“ შეგვიძლია მივმართოთ წყვეტილის მწკრივს. დავსვათ ამ მწკრივის კითხვა – რა ქნა.

თუ ამ მწკრივში ობიექტი მიცემითში აღმოჩნდება, ე.ი. ის ირიბია.

კიდევ უფრო მარტივად:

იმისთვის, რომ ამოიცნოთ ირიბი ობიექტი, ზმნას დაუსვით კითხვა: რა ქნა?

თუ ზმნა შეიწყობს ობიექტს მიცემით ბრუნვაში, ე.ი. ის ირიბია.

რახან ირიბი ობიექტი ბრუნვაუცვლელია, ის კითხვაზე – რას შვრება – ასევე მიცემით ბრუნვაში შეეწყობა ზმნას.

ავიღოთ ზმნა – ეკითხება;

შევუწყოთ პირები – ის მას მას;

ამ მოცემულობაში იმის გარკვევა, თუ რომელია პირდაპირი ობიექტი და რომელი – ირიბი – რთულია. დავსვათ „დამხარე“ კითხვა – რა ქნა.

პასუხი იქნება – ჰკითხა;

ხელახლა შევუწყოთ ზმნას პირები – მან მას ის;

დააკვირდით, რომელმა ობიექტმა არ შეიცვალა ბრუნვა?

სწორედ ეს ობიექტი გახლავთ ირიბი.

ირიბი ობიექტის შეწყობა უმთავრესი პირობაა იმისთვის, რომ ზმნამ დაირთოს შესაბამისი ნიშანი – ჰ- ან ს-, თუმცა მხოლოდ ეს საკმარისი არ არის.

ზმნა აუცილებლად უნდა იწყებოდეს ხშული თანხმოვნით.

წინააღმდეგ შემთხვევაში, მაშინაც კი, თუ ის ირიბ ობიექტს შეიცავს, ნიშნის დართვა საჭირო არ არის.

დააკვირდით ზმნებს:

შეხედა ( მან მას)

გადასახა ( მან მას ის)

შემატა ( მან მას ის)

თითოეული ეს ზმნა შეიცავს ირიბ ობიექტს, მაგრამ  შესაბამისი პირის ნიშანი არსად გვხვდება, რადგან ამ ზმნების ფუძეები არ იწყება ხშული თანხმოვნებით.

რომელია ხშული თანხმოვნები?

დაიმახსოვრეთ:

ბ პ ფ

დ ტ თ

გ ქ კ

ძ ც წ

ჯ ჩ ჭ

ამრიგად, ირიბ ობიექტთან ერთად ზმნის ფუძის გათვალისწინებაც სავალდებულოა იმის დასადგენად, უნდა დაერთოს თუ არა მას რომელიმე აღნიშნული ნიშანი.

შევაჯამოთ:

საორჭოფო ფორმების შემოწმებისას თანმიმდევრულად უნდა გავარკვიოთ ორი რამ:

  1. ზემოთ მოყვანილი წესის გამოყენებით გაარკვიეთ – შეეწყობა თუ არა ზმნას ირიბი (ბრუნვაუცვლელი) ობიექტი?
  2. იწყება თუ არა ზმნის ფუძე ზემოთ ჩამოთვლილი ხშული თანხმოვნებით?

თუ ორივე კითხვაზე პასუხი დადებითია – პირის ნიშნის დართვა სავალდებულოა.

თუ თუნდაც ერთზე პასუხი უარყოფითია – ნიშანი საჭირო არ არის.

საგანგებოდ უნდა აღინიშნოს რამდენიმე გამონაკლისი:

ქვემოთ ჩამოთვლილ ზმნებში ირიბი ობიექტი არ ვლინდება, მაგრამ პირის ნიშანი ს- აუცილებელია.

ეს ზმნებია:

გასტანს – გასტანა – გასტანოს;

გასწევს – გასწია – გასწიოს;

ასწევს – ასწია – ასწიოს;

გამოსცემს – გამოსცა – გამოსცეს;

გასცემს – გასცა – გასცეს;

დასძენს – დასძინა – დასძინოს;

დატოვეთ კომენტარი

კომენტარები

მსგავსი სიახლეები

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