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როგორი იქნება დედამიწა 250 მილიონი წლის შემდეგ?

250 მილიონი წლის შემდეგ, ავსტრალიიდან ალასკამდე სახმელეთო ტრანსპორტით მისვლა შესაძლებელი გახდება, – მეცნიერებმა ეს დასკვნა ცოტა ხნის წინ გააკეთეს.
ილინოისის შტატში მდებარე ევანსტონის უნივერსიტეტის მეცნიერის, ქრისტოფერ სკოტსის აზრით, დედამიწა 250 მილიონ წელიწადში რადიკალურ ტრანსფორმაციას განიცდის.

“50 მილიონი წლის შემდეგ ავსტრალიის კონტინენტი სამხრეთ-აღმოსავლეთ აზიას შეეჯახება, აფრიკა კი სამხრეთ ევროპას, რის შედეგადაც ატლანტის ოკეანე ყველაზე დიდ ოკეანედ იქცევა”, – აცხადებს მკვლევარი.

დედამიწის კონტინენტები ე.წ “თეფშის სისტემისაა”, რაც განსაკუთრებული სისწრაფით გადაადგილებას გულისხმობს. ზოგიერთი მათგანი, ნახევარ წელიწადში მინიმუმ 30 მილიმეტრით გადაადგილდება, ზოგი კი ამაზე ხუთჯერ სწრაფად.

რა ელის დედამიწას კაცობრიობის გაქრობის შემთხვევაში

კონტინენტების მოძრაობის შესახებ მოსაზრება პირველად გერმანელმა გეოფიზიკოსმა, ალფრედ ვეგენერმა გამოთქვა. მან შეამჩია, რომ მილიონობით წლის წინ არსებული ერთმანეთის მსგავსი ცხოველთა ნარჩენები ოკეანეებით დაშორებულ კონტინენტებზე აღმოაჩინეს, რაც ოდესღაც მათი ერთიანობის ნიშანი იყო.

ამის შემდეგ, დააკვირდა რუკას და აღმოაჩინა, რომ სამხრეთ ამერიკა და აფრიკა ერთმანეთისთვის “ფაზლის” ნაწილები იყო. აქედან შეიქმნა ვეგენერის “პასიური კონტინენტური გადაადგილების თეორია”, რომელსაც მაშინდელ საზოგადოებაში მოწონება არ დაუმსახურებია, რადგანაც მეცნიერმა საკმარისად ვერ განმარტა კონტინენტების გადაადილების მიზეზები. 1930 წელს კი იგი გარდაიცვალა.

ვეგენერის გარდაცვალებიდან 20 წლის შემდეგ, მარი თარპმა აღმოაჩინა, რომ კონტინენტების გადაადგილების ნიშანს ხმელეთზე არსებული მთათა სისტემები და უზარმაზარი ხეობები არ გვაძლევდა, თუმცა, ოკეანის სიღრმეებში საქმე სხვაგვარად იყო.

1950-იან წლებში მარი თარფმა ატლანტის ოკეანის სიღმეების რამდენიმეკილომეტრიანი რუკა შექმნა.

მისი თქმით, გაყოფილი კლდეები და მთები მილიონობით წლების წინ მთლიანობას წარმოადგენდა. ეს კი ვეგენერის მიერ გამოთქმულ მოსაზრებას ადასტურებდა.

მეორე მსოფლიო ომის დროს, ამერიკელმა გეოლოგმა და წყალქვეშა ნავის კაპიტანმა ჰარი ჰესმა ოკეანის სიღრმეში არსებული მთების თხემებს შორის მსგავსება შენიშნა. გარდა ამისა, როდესაც ომის დროს წყალქვეშა ნავით დაცურავდა, აღმოაჩინა, რომ რუკა, რომლითაც ხელმძღვანელობდა, ოკეანის სიღრმეში არსებული ზედაპირის ფორმებს აღარ შეესაბამებოდა.


ამ აღმოჩენის მიხედვით, ოკეანის რელიეფი ნელ-ნელა იცვლება. ჰესმა ივარაუდა, რომ ცხელი მაგმა ოკეანეში არსებული მთების თხემამდე ამოდიოდა და გაციების შემდეგ კლდედ იქცეოდა.

კლდეების ასეთ მოძრაობას კონტინენტების მოძრაობის მიზეზის ახსნა შეეძლო – მაგმის ამოფრქვევის შემდეგ, სიღრმეებიდან ამოსული ბიძგი კლდეებად ქცეულ მაგმას გადაადგილებდა. ეს თეორია ცნობილია, როგორც “ოკეანის ზედაპირის გავრცელება”.

დედამიწაზე ხმელეთის ფართობი გაიზარდა

დედამიწის ბევრი კლდე შედგება იმ მინერალებისგან, რისგანაც მაგმა შედგება. ამიტომაც მეცნიერები ვარაუდობენ, რომ კლდეები გაცივებული მაგმის შედეგად წარმოიქმნა.
კანადელმა გეოლოგმა ლოურენს მორლიმ, ბრიტანელმა გეოლოგმა ფრედერიკ ვაინმა და დრუმონ მეთიუსმა ივარაუდეს, რომ ეს პროცესები ოკეანის სიღრმეში არსებულ ცვლილებებზე ნამდვილად მიუთითებდა. მაგნიტური მინერალები და ცხელი ლავა, რომელიც ოკეანის სიღმეში აღწევს და იყინება, რის შემდეგაც კლდეები წარმოიქმნება, თითქმის ისეთივეა, როგორიც ხმელეთის ზედაპირზე არსებული კლდეები, რაც დედამიწის ზედაპირის ათასობით წლის წინანდელ ცვლილებებზე მიუთითებს.

მეცნიერების აზრით, “ხმელეთის თეფშები” იბრძვიან საუკეთესო ადგილმდებარეობის დასაკავებლად. კონტინენტები გადააგილდებიან, მაგრამ საინტერესოა, უბრუნდებიან თუ არა თავიანთ ძველ პოზიციას გარკვეული პერიოდის შემდეგ?

ერთი რამ კი ნათელია, ასი წლის წინ ვეგენერი მართალი იყო, კონტინენტები ნამდვილად მოძრაობდნენ და მოძრაობენ ახლაც.

წყარო: Allnews.ge

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