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ამერიკელმა მეცნიერებმა ალექსანდრე მაკედონელის სიკვდილის საიდუმლო ამოხსნეს. აღმოჩნდა, რომ იგი შხამიანი წყლით მოწამლეს. მეცნიერთა ვერსიით, მაკედონელი, რომელმაც საბერძნეთიდან ინდოეთამდე უზარმაზარი ტერიტორიები დაიპყრო, ბერძნული მდინარე სტიქსის წყლით მოწამლეს. მდინარე, რომელიც ბერძნული მითოლოგიით მიწისქვეშა სამეფოშია (სადაც გარდაცვლილთა სულები განისვენებენ), სინამდვილეში დღესაც არსებობს. იგი პელოპონესის ნახევარკუნძულის მთებში მოედინება და მავრონერს, ანუ „შავ წყალს“ უწოდებენ.

ექსპერტები მივიდნენ მოსაზრებამდე, რომ დიდი მხედართმთავრის სიკვდილის მიზეზი განსაკუთრებით შხამიანი ბაქტერია იყო, რომელიც მომწამლავ

ნივთიერებას, კალიქეამიცინს გამოიმუშავებს.

“ეს ბაქტერია განსაკუთრებით ტოქსიკურია. ძველი ბერძნული მითოლოგიით, ღმერთები ადამიანებს ფიცს მდინარე სტიქსის ნაპირას ადებინებდნენ. მას, ვინც იტყუებოდა, ზევსი აიძულებდა მდინარის წყალი დაელია. ლეგენდის თანახმად, ასეთი ადამიანები მუნჯდებოდნენ და სიარულის უნარიც ერთი წლით  ერთმეოდათ”, – მიუთითებს გამოკვლევის ერთ-ერთი თანაავტორი, სტენფორდის უნივერსიტეტის მეცნიერ-ტოქსიკოლოგი ანტუანეტა ჰეისი. “ლოგიკურია, რომ ალექსანდრე მაკედონელი, რომელიც ღმერთკაცად ითვლებოდა, სწორედ ასეთი შხამით მოწამლეს.

ნიშანდობლივია, რომ ზოგიერთი სიმპტომი და ალექსანდრე მაკედონელის დაავადების მიმდინარეობა შეესაბამება სტიქსის შესახებ ძველბერძნულ მითებს. მან ხმაც კი დაკარგა და კომაში ჩავარდა, ანუ მოხდა

ზუსტად ის, რაც ამ მდინარის წყლის დალევის შემდეგ ხდებოდა”, – ამბობს გამოკვლევის კიდევ ერთი თანაავტორი, სტენფორდის უნივერსიტეტის მკვლევარი ადრიენა მეიორი. კვლევის შედეგების გამოქვეყნების მიუხედავად, მკვლევრები არაფერს ამბობენ იმაზე, როგორ და ვის უნდა ჩაეტანა პელოპონესის ნახევარკუნძულის მთებიდან მდინარე სტიქსის წყალი შორეულ ბაბილონში, სადაც ალექსანდრე მაკედონელი იმყოფებოდა.

ადრე ისტორიკოსები ვარაუდობდნენ, რომ მაკედონელის სიკვდილი ლოთობამ, მუცლის ტიფმა, მალარიამ, მწვავე პანკრეასმა, დასავლეთ ნილოსის ცხელებამ თუ შემთხვევითმა ან წინასწარ გამიზნულმა მოწამვლამ გამოიწვია.

ალექსანდრე მაკედონელი ინდოეთში ლაშქრობის შემდეგ, ბაბილონში, ნაბუქოდონოსორ მეორის სასახლეში ღამეული ლხინის შემდეგ დაავადდა.  მან ღვიძლის მოულოდნელი და მწვავე ტკივილის შესახებ დაიჩივლა და ლოგინად ჩავარდა. 12 დღის განმავლობაში მაღალი სიცხე და სახსრების ტკივილი ტანჯავდა. შემდეგ კომაში ჩავარდა და ძვ.წ. 323 წლის 10 ივნისს, 33 წლის ასაკში გარდაიცვალა.

4 დღე სიჩუმე სუფევდა ბაბილონს, შოკირებული ხალხი გლოვობდა. მაკედონელის ცხედარი ეგვიპტეში, ალექსანდრიაში გადაასვენეს და იქ დიდი პატივით დაკრძალეს.
სიკვდილის წინ მის გარშემო შემოკრებილთ ყველას აინტერესებდა, ვის დაასახელებდა მემკვიდრედ. ალექსანდრემ კლასიკური, ბერძნული პასუხი მიაგო ტახტის მოსურნეთ და განაცხადა, რომ ის თავის იმპერიას ყველაზე ძლიერს დაუტოვებდა.

ისტორიულ წყაროებში არ ჩანს, ზრუნავდა თუ არა ალექსანდრე მემკვიდრეზე, მამამისისგან განსხვავებით, რომელიც შვილს  დაბადებიდანვე ზრდიდა იმპერატორად. შეიძლება ალექსანდრე არც ჩქარობდა და დიდხანს აპირებდა კიდევ მაკედონიის იმპერიის მართვას. ის ხომ მხოლოდ 33 წლისა იყო.

ალექსანდრე მაკედონიის სამეფოს დედაქალაქში, პელაში დაიბადა, ძვ.წ.  356 წლის ივლისში. იმ დღეს, როცა არტემიდას ტაძარი დაიწვა ჰეფესოში. მამამ, ფილიპე მეორემ გააერთიანა მაკედონია, შექმნა ძლიერი ჯარი, დაიპყრო საბერძნეთი, მოიპოვა დიდი სიმდიდრე და ძალაუფლება. პლუტარქეს მიხედვით, ის ჰერკულესის შთამომავალი იყო, დედა – ეპირის მეფის, პტოლემაიოსის ქალიშვილი ოლიმპია კი, თუ პლუტარქეს ვერწმუნებით, აქილევსის შთამომავალი. გადმოცემით, ალექსანდრე უშიშარი ყმაწვილი ყოფილა. 12 წლის ასაკში მოათვინიერა ბუცეფალი, ველური ცხენი, რომელსაც სხვა ვერავინ ეკარებოდა.

მის პირველ მასწავლებელს, ლეონიდასს უკავშირებენ ალექსანდრე მაკედონელის სპარტანულ აღზრდას. მოგვიანებით, ლეონიდასს ლისიმაქე ჩაენაცვლა, რომელმაც ალექსანდრეს ქნარზე დაკვრა ასწავლა და ხელოვნება შეაყვარა. 13 წლის ალექსანდრე არისტოტელეს მიაბარეს. სწორედ აქ შეხვდა თავის მომავალ საუკეთესო მეგობარ ჰეფესტიონს.

არისტოტელემ ალექსანდრეს ზედმიწევნით შეასწავლა რიტორიკა და ლიტერატურა, გაუღვივა ინტერესი მეცნიერების, მედიცინის, ფილოსოფიის, ფიზიკის, მეტეოროლოგიის, გეოგრაფიისა და თეოლოგიისადმი…

ალექსანდრე მაკედონელის სამხედრო და პოლიტიკურ განათლებაზე კი მამამ იზრუნა. 16 წლისა იყო, როცა ფილიპე მეორე აჯანყების ჩასახშობად ბიზანტიონს გაემგზავრა. მამის არყოფნისას სამეფო ტახტი ალექსანდრეს გადაეცა.

მამის ნდობის მიუხედავად, ალექსანდრე ვერ ეწყობოდა ფილიპეს. მამა-შვილს შორის ურთიერთობა განსაკუთრებით დაიძაბა მას შემდეგ, რაც ფილიპემ კლეოპატრაზე დაქორწინება გადაწყვიტა.

ძვ.წ. 336 წლის ზაფხულში, ფილიპე თავისი ქალიშვილის ქორწილში მოკლეს. ზოგიერთი წყაროს ცნობით, ეს შეთქმულება ალექსანდრეს დედამ, ოლიმპიამ მოაწყო.
20 წლის ალექსანდრე დაუყოვნებლივ წარუდგინეს ჯარს, როგორც მაკედონიის ახალი მეფე. ახალგაზრდა მეფეს ტახტის მრავალი მოცილე გამოუჩნდა, რომლებიც ნელ-ნელა ჩამოიცილა. თავად სარდალი ატილოსიც, კლეოპატრას ბიძა, მცირე აზიაში გაგზავნა სალაშქროდ, მოგვიანებით კი თავიდან მოიშორა.

გამეფების შემდეგ, ალექსანდრემ თავი უზენაესი ღმერთის, ზევსის შვილად გამოაცხადა. თუმცა, როგორც ისტორიკოსები აღნიშნავენ, ეს სულაც არ იყო საჭირო, რადგან მისი ერთი შეხედვაც საკმარისი იყო იმის გასაგებად, რომ ალექსანდრე დიდებისთვის დაიბადა. ალექსანდრე მაკედონელი ისტორიაში შევიდა, როგორც  ერთ-ერთი უდიდესი სამხედრო გენიოსი და სტრატეგი, რომელმაც მაშინდელი მსოფლიო ცივილიზაციის უმეტესი ნაწილი დაიპყრო და შექმნა უდიდესი იმპერია, რომელშიც შედიოდა მაკედონია, ეგვიპტე, სირია, სპარსეთი და მცირე აზია.

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