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„კავკასიელი არწივი“ – იმამი შამილი ქართველი იყო?

ინგლისელი ოფიცერი მანტეისი წერდა:,,ყველაზე ძვირფასი, რაც ალექსანდრე ბატონიშვილს ამქვეყნად დარჩა, მოწაფე და მიმდევარი შამილი იყო – მისი ასლი და კვალი შესახედავად და იდეებით, დაუძინებელი მტერი რუსეთისა!”

თამაზ ჩიქვანაია   სტამბულში პირველად სტუმრობისას, მასპინძლობას ბალალ (გიორგი) მემეშიში მიწევდა, რომელიც თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტში ასპირანტურაში სწავლისას გავიცანი. მისი არეული ლაზურ-ქართული, ჩემი მეგრული ფესვების წყალობით, მხოლოდ მე მესმოდა და მალე დავმეგობრდით კიდეც.  აია-სოფიას დიდებული ტაძრის მონახულების შემდეგ, ტოპ-კაპის მუზეუმში  წამიყვანა. იმდროინდელი შთაბეჭდილებებით არ დაგღლით, ერთ, ჩემთვის უინტერესო  ექსპონატთან გამაჩერა და მითხრა: — ეს მოსასხამი და ჩალმა დიდ იმამ შამილს ეკუთვნოდაო, როდესაც დაინახა რომ არც ამ ფრაზამ მოახდინა ეფექტი, დაამატა: იცი, რომ არსებობს ვერსია, რომლის თანახმადაც შამილი კავკასიის მთიანეთში გადახვეწილი ალექსანდრე ბატონიშვილის შვილიაო. ჩემი უნდობლობის გასაქარწყლებლად, შინ დაბრუნებულს, თავისი კვლევის ნიმუშები მიჩვენა. ამ ამბის დაბეჯითებით დადასტურება ძნელია, მაგრამ ვერსიის დონეზე მისი განხილვა თბილისში დაბრუნებულმა ვცადე და ასეთი შედეგი მივიღე.  ეროვნული ბიბლიოთეკის არქივი ყველა ქართველი ქალი ელისაბედივით რომ აბუნტდეს… ალ.ფრონელის წიგნში „მთის არწივი შამილი“ ნათქვამია შამილის წარმომავლობაზე: „როდესაც ალექსანდრე ბატონიშვილი, ძე ერეკლე მეორისა იყო დევნილი რუსთაგან, მაშინ იგი გადაიხვეწა დაღესტანში, ავარში, სოფელ სოკოლოს, რომელიც არის გიმრის მახლობლად. ამ განდევნილობის ჟამში ალექსანდრემ, როგორც უცოლო ასაკოვანმა ვაჟკაცმა შეიყვარა რომელიმე ლეკის საშუალებით ერთი ლეკის, სახელად დენგაუს ცოლი, ქალი ლამაზი და მათი შეერთებიდგან დაიბადა შამილი, რომელიც განითქვა შემდეგ დაღისტნის იმამად და შეიქმნა ძლიერ განთქმული რუსების მტერი. თვით დენგაუ იყო კაცი ძრიელ ლაღი და სუსტი ჭკუის. ხელობა იმისი იყო მხოლოდ წყლის ზიდვა საკიდრით მდინარედგან და არა მეტი ხელობა მას არ შეეძლო. მცხოვრები იყო სოფელ გიმრის და, როგორც ამბობენ, არ შესძლებოდა მას სისუსტისა გამო შესრულება ცოლ–ქმრობის წესებისა.“ საკუთარი ვარაუდების მხარდასაჭერად ალ. ფრონელს მოჰყავს  შამილის თანამემამულეთა დასკვნებიც: „ამ თვალსაზრისს ადასტურებს მოხუც ლეკთაგან მოსმენილი გადმოცემებიც –  დედა რომ გაუწყრებოდა შამილს, მობეზრებული მისი ცელქობით, წააყვედრებდა ხოლმე: არ დასცხრები, შე გიაურო და გურჯის შვილოვო!“  ვაჟა-ფშაველას საინტერესო მოგონებები დარჩა დაღესტანში, ალექსანდრე ბატონიშვილის ცხოვრებაზე. სოფელ გიმრზე, სადაც ბატონიშვილი კარგა ხანს ცხოვრობდა;  ფშაური თქმულებაც ჩაუწერია ვაჟა–ფშაველას: „პირველად, როცა ბატონიშვილი ალექსანდრე გაიქცა და მტრობა გამოუცხადა რუსის მთავრობას, მიჰმართა მთას. ბატონიშვილს ყველგან უნდოდა მომხრეები ეშოვნა. ამ მიზნის მისაღწევად დაღესტანშიაც კი იმყოფებოდა. ფშავისა ხომ ხშირი სტუმარი იყო, სადაც ნათლიდედები და ნათლიმამები გაიჩინა. უამისოდაც ზოგიერთ ოჯახებთან ძლიერ დაახლოვებული იყო ბატონიშვილი. ერთი ამისთანა ოჯახი ხახა ქისტაურისა იყო, სადაც ერთხელ ქეიფობის დროს ბატონიშვილმა წარმოსთქვა თურმე: „ეჰ, მე იქნება ამოდენა ტანტალში უძეოდ მოვკვდე. თუმცა კი არც უძეო ვარ, მხოლოდ ის მენანება, რომ ჩემი თესლი დაღესტანში დარჩაო“.

წიგნში „ვაინახები და ქართველი მთიელები“ ხვთისო მამისიმედაშვილი შამილის მიერ საკუთარი წარმომავლობის ცნობის საინტერესო ინტერპრეტაციას იძლევა: „როგორც ცნობილია, ამ გარემოებას თვით იმამიც არ უარყოფდა. ვინ იცის, იქნებ გამარჯვების შემთხვევაში სურდა კიდეც კავკასიის გაერთიანება, თავის გამოცხადება ბაგრატიონთა მემკვიდრედ და თავზე საქართველოს სამეფო გვირგვინის დადგმაც“.  გარეშე მიუმხრობელი წყაროებიდან შამილის ქართული წარმოშობა დასტურდება „რუსეთის საიმპერიო კავშირ–ორდენის“ მიერ, ლოს–ანჯელესის და სამხრეთ კალიფორნიის არქიეპისკოპოს, მაღალყოვლადუსამღვდელოეს ანტონის რედაქციით გამოცემულ წიგნში: „რუსეთის საიმპერატორო ტახტის სამემკვიდრეო“, სადაც ვკითხულობთ: „მეფე ერეკლე II-ის ვაჟი ალექსანდრე კვლავაც ინარჩუნებდა მტრულ პოზიციას. მან დიდხანს დაჰყო დაღესტანში. იქ გავრცელებული გადმოცემით, შამილი მისი უკანონო ძე იყო.“     ინგლისელი ოფიცერი მანტეისი კი წერდა:,,ყველაზე ძვირფასი, რაც ალექსანდრე ბატონიშვილს ამქვეყნად დარჩა, მოწაფე და მიმდევარი შამილი იყო — მისი ასლი და კვალი შესახედავად და იდეებით, დაუძინებელი მტერი რუსეთისა!” შამილის ტყვეობაში 8 თვე გაატარა გრიგოლ ორბელიანის ძმამ ილიკო ორბელიანმა, რომელმაც ასე დაგვისურათა იმამი: „ტუჩებზე მუდამ ღიმილი დასთამაშებდა, ოდნავ გაპობილი ბაგედან ორი მწკრივი თეთრი კბილი მოუკრთოდა, რაც მოწმობდა მის ცბიერებასაც და გულკეთილობასაც. ინით შეღებილი წითური წვერიც ძალიან ამშვენებდა მის სახეს. ტანად საშუალო იყო, ჩამკვრივებული, ლამაზად ჩასხმული, იყურებოდა მეტად ბრგედ, ვაჟკაცურად. ამ წარმოსადეგ ადამიანს ისე ეჭირა თავი, თითქოს 35 წლის ვაჟკაციაო, მაშინ, როცა ბევრად ხნიერი უნდა ყოფილიყო. როდესაც პირველად თვალი შევავლე შამილს, მეტად მომეწონა თვითონაც, მისი მდიდარი ჩაცმულობაც და შეიარაღებაც, რაც კიდევ უფრო აძლიერებდა მის ვაჟკაცურ სილამაზეს და სიკისკასეს. თავზე ჩალმიანი წითელი ჩერქეზული ქუდი ეხურა, ტანთ ეცვა ახალუხი, ზემოდან წითელი მაუდის ჩოხა, სულ მოსირმული და ვერცხლის პატარა მასრებით მოქარგული. მხარზე ეკიდა ხმალი, წელთ ეკრა ქამარი, რომელშიც გარჭობილი ჰქონდა ორი დამბაჩა. წინ კიდევ ხანჯალი ეკიდა. ასეთი იყო შამილი.“

როგორც ცნობილია შამილის უთანასწორო ბრძოლა მარცხით დასრულდა, იგი ჩაბარდა გენერალ ბარიატინსკის და როდესაც დატყვევებული მიჰყავდათ, ორი კვირის შემდეგ ბადრაგის ერთი წევრისთვის უკითხავს ეს უკიდეგანო ტრამალები თეთრი მეფის საკუთრებააო? და დადებითი პასუხის მიღებისას უთქვამს: ამხელა მიწების პატრონს რატომ შეშურდა ჩემი ორი მთაო. 1859 წლიდან 1868 წლამდე შამილი რუსთა ტყვეობაში იყო.. დატყვევებიდან ერთი თვის თავზე იგი პეტერბურგში, იმპერატორ ალექსანდრე მეორესთან მიიყვანეს, თანაც, იარაღითა და ქამარ-ხანჯლით აღჭურვილი – რუსები გაგებით მოეკიდნენ იმ ფაქტს, რომ კავკასიელისთვის იარაღის აყრა შეურაცხმყოფელი იქნებოდა. ამაზე შემდგომში მთელი ევროპა წერდა. ამ შეხვედრის დროს იმპერატორს შამილისთვის უთქვამს: მონანიება არ არის საჭიროო და მეგობრობა შესთავაზა. ალექსანდრე მეორემ შამილსა და მისი ოჯახის 22 წევრს პენსია დაუნიშნა 20 ათასი მანეთის ოდენობით, პლუს შამილს ცალკე – 15 ათასი მანეთი. როგორც მაშინდელი პრესა წერდა, ეს თანხა აღემატებოდა 1850-1851 წლებში მთლიანად შამილის იმამათის მეომართა მიერ მოპოვებულ ნადავლს. საინტერესოა, რომ რუსეთის ხელისუფლებამ შამილი კალუგაში დაასახლა და იქ „კავკასიური სახლი” აუშენა, რომელსაც ეზოში მეჩეთიც ჰქონდა.

შამილის უკანასკნელი თხოვნა იყო, რომ  ნება დაერთოთ მისთვის, მექაში წასულიყო და მაჰმადიანთა წმიდა ადგილები მოელოცა. იმპერატორის ნებართვით შამილი მექაში გაემგზავრა, გზად სტამბულში შეჩერებულა, სადაც იმ დროის ფადიშაჰს აბდულ-აზიზს მიუწვევია, მაგრამ თურქებზე განაწყენებულ შამილს მიწვევა არად ჩაუგდია, სალოცავები მოილოცა და გზა გააგრძელა. ეს, გაუგონარი საქციელი სხვას არავის ეპატიებოდა, თუმცა შამილის ავტორიტეტს ვერც თურქი მონარქი აღუდგა წინ. მექაში ჩასულმა ღმერთს შესთხოვა, რომ მისი ცხოვრება ამ წმინდა მიწაზე დასრულებულიყო. მართლაც, ამ პერიოდში, კერძოდ, 1871 წელს, იგი ქალაქ მედინაში გარდაიცვალა. „კავკასიელი არწივი” – შამილი დაკრძალულია მუსლიმანთა უწმიდეს ადგილზე – ჯანიათ-ალ-ბაქირის სასაფლაოზე.  შამილის შესახებ ბევრი  ტყუილ-მართალი ლეგენდა არსებობს; როგორც თავში მოგახსენეთ,  ეს ამბებიც ამ კატეგორიაში გადის, პრეტენზია არა, მაგრამ ვერსიის დონეზე არსებობის უფლება უდავოდ აქვს. მთავარი კი რატომაც მოგითხრეთ, ის გახლავთ, რომ საინტერესო მგონია და იმედი მაქვს „სპუტნიკ“-ის მკითხველებიც ინტერესით გაეცნობიან.

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